This article will help you understand the difference between Type 1 Diabetes Vs Type 2 Diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which the beta-cell of the pancreas is unable to produce insulin whereas, in the case of Type 2 diabetes insulin which is produced b-cell is not effective, it is a chronic disease and commonly occurs in children and young age group that’s why Type 1 diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes whereas Type 2 is generally seen in middle-aged people. However, both types can be diagnosed at any age.
Insulin is a hormone, produced by the beta-cell of the islet of Langerhans from the pancreas, insulin play important role in converting glucose into energy, it mainly helps glucose to enter into the cell which finally converts into energy and balance the level of glucose into the blood.
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes Vs Type 2 Diabetes.
Genetic – If someone has a family history of diabetes or in the case when both the parents have diabetes, the chances are higher compare to just one parent with diabetes.
Infection– Various study shows that IDDM ( INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS ) follows a coxsackie or other virus infection. These viruses trigger an autoimmune reaction in the pancreatic islet which impairs the insulin section and starts destroying the beta cells. Sometimes there is a long interval between infection and the appearance of symptoms.
Immunological factors– Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmunity, autoimmunity is a condition in which the body starts attacking itself by mistake and the immune system of the body destroys the b-cell of the pancreas which is responsible for producing insulin.
Acute stress– when people are in stress, the body releases hormone named adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol, these hormone raises blood glucose level which provides energy to the body for coping with stress.
Whereas causes of Type 2 diabetes (NON – INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS ) are genetic and involve certain environmental factors like lifestyle, age, abdominal fat, and pregnancy.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes Vs Type 2 Diabetes
Symptoms depend upon the severity of the condition.
Initial symptoms may include:-
- Hyperglycemia – High glucose level in the blood.
- Glycosuria – Found the excess amount of sugar in the urine.
- Polyuria – Frequent urination with increased volume.
- Nocturia – Feeling of urination at night more than normal.
- Polydipsia – Feeling of excessive thirst.
- Polyphagia – feeling of excessive hunger.
- Dehydration– excess amount of water loss from the body.
- Loss of weight (Type 1) and obesity (Type 2).
- Acidosis – Excessive production of acid in the blood.
- Fluid and electrolyte imbalance.
Later other symptoms may appear like:-
- Blurred vision.
- Skin irritation or infection.
- Decreased healing capacity.
- Loss of strength.
- Nerve damage.
In case of uncontrolled diabetes, symptoms become more serious and it could be lead to coma or death if ignored.
How to diagnose Type 1 Diabetes Vs Type 2 Diabetes
There are several tests available to diagnosis diabetes.
- Glycosuria – In this, a sample of urine is taken after 2-3 hours of meal for examination, the presence of the abnormal amount of glucose is taken as evidence of diabetes.
- Ketonuria – In this high amount of ketone bodies are found in urine, if both ketonuria and glycosuria are detected then diabetes is almost confirmed.
- Fasting blood sugar – A sample of blood is taken to detect diabetes, a fasting blood glucose level should not exceed 140mg/dl.
- Random blood sugar – In this blood sample is taken randomly at any time of the day, if it is more than 200mg/dl it is almost certain that the person is suffering from diabetes.
- Oral glucose tolerance test – In this test a sugary drink is given to the person after that blood and urine specimen is collected to see what is the response of the body towards glucose, if it is more than 200mg/dl after 2 hrs of intake, indicate diabetes. This test is used to detect Type 2 diabetes.
- HBAIC (glycosylated hemoglobin) – In this, the average sugar level of the past 3 months is shown if it is above 6.5% or 48 mmol/mol it indicates diabetes symptoms.
Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes
Treatment for type 1 diabetes Vs type 2 diabetes
- Taking insulin and medication.
- Diet management.
- Exercise to maintain good health.
- Blood sugar monitoring on a daily basis.
Role of Diet and Exercise in diabetes.
Diet and exercise play important role in diabetes.
Various studies show that it helps in improving insulin sensitivity.
In the case of Type 1 diabetes, a person should be careful about the timing of meals, it should be matched to the doses of insulin to prevent hypoglycemia (low blood sugar level).
Doing regular exercise will help you to maintain weight, keep your blood sugar level and lipid profile normal, talk to your doctor and dietician before starting any exercise and diet.
Complex carbohydrates – Complex carbohydrates are high in fiber and digest slowly which helps the body to maintain sugar levels, some examples of complex carbs are brown rice, oatmeal, barley, quinoa, etc.
Protein – Normal protein intake which is 1g /kg body weight is recommended for adults in IDDM and NIDDM, for children 1-1.5 g /kg body weight is recommended. Prefer lean protein and low-fat dairy products, etc.
Fat – Low-fat diet is recommended which is also helpful in reducing the risk of atherosclerosis common in diabetes also reduces LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) levels. A low-fat diet also helps in maintaining weight, as we know obesity is one of the risk factors of diabetes.
Fibre- Dietary fibre help in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. A high fibre diet helps in weight control and lowering blood pressure, also provide satiety value. Fruits with a low Glycemic index like apple and green leafy vegetables are a good source of fibre.
Artificial sweeteners – There are substitutes for sugar are available known as artificial sweeteners which have a pleasant taste. Some examples are cyclamate, Ace-k, stevia, aspartame, saccharin, sucralose.
Is type 1 or type2 diabetes curable, Can type 1 is treated by tablets?
This is the most frequently asked question. sadly, there is no cure for diabetes, but in the case of Type 2 diabetes you can control it by diet, exercise and medication, in some cases insulin also required like, when hypoglycemic drugs are not responding/surgery/pregnancy, etc.
Managing your diet and weight help you to keep your blood sugar level normal. But in the case of Type 1 diabetes, you have to take insulin doses because your body is unable to produce insulin.
Also, regular blood sugar level monitoring is necessary in both cases (Type1 and Type 2).
Increased blood sugar level will affect your body organs like kidney, eyes, liver, etc. so try to maintain it by healthy diet and regular exercise as much as you can, your maintained sugar levels are also reduces the side effects .
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